Female studies

The main causes of female infertility

To determine the cause of female infertility, an examination is conducted to determine whether the eggs are mature and are being released from the ovaries, whether the fallopian tubes are permeable and whether the uterine lining is normal. The presence of sexually transmitted diseases must also be ruled out. However, in about 10% of cases, a woman’s infertility is due to the presence of endometriosis in the pelvis.

female studies
female studies

Damage to the fallopian tubes and the uterine lining

Damage can be caused by the inflammation caused by various sexually transmitted diseases. An inflammation can cause filmy adhesions to form around the fallopian tubes, ovaries or uterus that may interfere with the normal functioning of the female genitals. The formation of these adhesions can also be caused by surgeries in the pelvis minor region, including both intraperitoneal and intrauterine procedures. If the fallopian tube is damaged or closed, fertilisation of the egg is not possible due to a mechanical obstruction. Damage to the lining of the uterus, or endometrium, also prevents the embryo developed from a fertilised egg from attaching to the lining of the uterus and resulting in pregnancy.

Disorders of oocyte maturation and the ovarian release

Oocyte maturation in the ovaries is mainly mediated by two pituitary hormones: FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinising hormone). FSH induces the growth of the follicles needed by the egg, while LH helps the egg to mature and be released from the ovary (ovulation). Female infertility may occur due to an impaired regulation of FSH and LH. The most common hormonal disorder that causes female infertility is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in which the final maturation of the ovarian follicles is disrupted.

ultrasound examination
Female studies endometriosis


Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the womb starts to grow outsite of uterine cavity, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Outbreaks of endometriosis cause damage to the ovaries and can result in a blockage of the fallopian tubes. The changes in the tissue fluids associated with endometriosis are detrimental to both the ova and very early embryos.

Where? When?

The scope and order of the tests will depend on the woman’s age, the characteristics of the menstrual cycle, any gynaecological and general illnesses she has suffered, the existence and termination of previous pregnancies and many other factors.

Blood tests can be performed on the first floor of the Women’s Clinic of the West Tallinn Central Hospital Women’s Centre in Office B104 from 7:30 am to 2:30 pm.

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